What are the prerequisites for installing Magento?

To install Magento, you need to ensure that your server environment meets certain prerequisites. Here are the key requirements for installing Magento:

  1. Web Server: Magento can run on both Apache and Nginx web servers. Apache is the most commonly used web server for Magento.
  2. PHP Version: Magento 2.4.x requires PHP 7.4.x or 8.1.x. Magento 2.3.x supports PHP versions 7.2.x, 7.3.x, and 7.4.x.
  3. PHP Extensions: Magento requires several PHP extensions to be enabled, including:
    • bcmath
    • ctype
    • curl
    • dom
    • gd
    • hash
    • iconv
    • intl
    • mbstring
    • openssl
    • pdo_mysql
    • simplexml
    • soap
    • spl
    • xsl
    • zip
  4. Database: Magento supports MySQL 5.7 or MariaDB 10.2 (Magento 2.3.x and 2.4.x). MySQL 8.0 is also supported with Magento 2.4.x.
  5. PHP Memory Limit: Magento recommends setting the PHP memory limit to at least 1GB, although the required memory depends on the size and complexity of your store.
  6. File System Permissions: Magento requires write permissions for specific directories and files on the server to function correctly.
  7. Composer: Composer is a dependency manager for PHP, and it is required for installing and updating Magento.
  8. SSL Certificate (Optional but Recommended): While not strictly required, it is highly recommended to have an SSL certificate installed on your server for secure communication and better search engine rankings.
  9. Caching Tools: Magento utilizes various caching mechanisms for improved performance. Popular caching tools like Redis or Varnish can be integrated with Magento for better caching performance.
  10. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Tools: Magento supports integration with various SEO tools, such as Elasticsearch or Sphinx, for improved search functionality and better indexing of product catalogs.
  11. Cron Jobs: Magento requires scheduled cron jobs to be set up on the server for tasks like re-indexing, newsletter queue processing, and other background processes.

It's important to note that the specific versions and configurations of these prerequisites may vary depending on the Magento version you plan to install. It's always recommended to refer to the official Magento documentation for the most up-to-date and version-specific requirements.